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Specific biosecurity considerations

Beyond the baseline biosecurity practices that should be carried out for all cases, the possibility of the various listed zoonotic and notifiable agents indicates some additional and/or specific biosecurity considerations are warranted.

Among the agents we identified as possible causes of the current abortion event, consider the specific risk factors or exposure sources that should be investigated from the agents listed below.

Reflective questions

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Agent Specific Risk Factors to Investigate
Coxiella burnetii Vaccination of status of the farmer and other humans exposed to the goats. Other animals that could be an exposure source. Milk processing and distribution practices.
Chlamydia psittaci, C. abortus Exposure to wild animals, including feral goats, birds. Introductions of new stock, possibilities of recent exposure to stock from overseas.
Toxoplasma gondii Exposure to cats and cat faeces. Are these goats also used for meat?
Campylobacter species Exposure to wild animals, particularly birds.
Leptospira interrogans Exposure to wild animals, particularly feral pigs, rats. Flood events, poor drainage, or other potential contaminated water sources. Vaccination status.
Listeria monocytogenes Exposure to high risk materials like silage or other fermented plant materials.
Fungus (Mucor, Rhizopus etc.) Mould exposure, including in feeds.
Akabane virus Abortions or foetal deformities in cattle reported locally? Presence of Culicoides vector?
Brucella melitensis Potential incursion source for this exotic bacterium. Humans travelling from overseas, bringing foods of animal origin, particularly milk or meat products, onto the farm.
Caprine Herpesvirus 1 (CpHV 1) Evidence of pustular vulvovaginitis or other genital lesions in does or balanoposthitis in bucks? Systemic symptoms in surviving kids?
Bluetongue Exposure to Culicoides vectors. Endemic in region?
Border disease virus (BDV) Surviving kids with classical “hairy shaker” symptoms? Recent flock introductions?
Salmonella species Other clinical signs associated.
Mycoplasma species (M. mycoides and M. agalactiae) Other clinical signs associated. Endemic in region?
Yersinia pseudotuberculosis Other clinical signs associated.